Decisions, decisions: How a group of medical librarians are contributing directly to a Clinical Decision Support system Margo Coletti, Julia Whelan - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center A small group of academic and hospital librarians, physicians, and programmers are building the online Harvard Library of Evidence (LoE) to help satisfy the federal appropriate use criteria (AUC) requirement. Librarians from Harvard Medical School and its teaching hospitals serve as “curators” who evaluate literature used as evidence to inform Clinical Decision Rules (CDRs), which make up the LoE. Professional society guidelines, local best practices, and peer-reviewed literature are combed for pieces of clinical logic. Each piece of logic is broken down into multiple decision points (called rules) and assigned to two different curators (medical librarians). Curators evaluate the strength of the evidence provided in studies cited by the guidelines. Using ratings from the Center for Evidence Based Medicine at Oxford and the United States Preventative Task Force (USPTF), the curators assign scores to the studies for each rule. Physicians review the curators’ ratings before the rules are finalized. Twice a month the entire group meets to debate the ratings (sometimes hotly!). The LoE will play a key role in integrating evidence ratings into mandated electronic health records, and in promoting appropriate use and cost-saving efforts. The LoE will be free to all, and open source coding for the LoE will be available to any EHR vendor or healthcare provider. This is a new role for medical librarians - an opportunity to utilize our special skills in evaluating evidence-based medicine and to contribute directly to a project designed to benefit all patients and healthcare organizations. A Picture is Worth a Thousand Data Points Sally Gore - UMASS Center for Clinical & Translational Science Graphics, images, and other visual representations of information, when used properly, provide a means of presenting complex stories in a clear and efficient manner. This presentation will demonstrate how the use of infographics in documents, reports, and promotional materials improves the ability to show the impact of the programs of a clinical and translational science center to its numerous stakeholders. It will also highlight how this skill set expands the role(s) of librarians into the realm of research evaluation.
The Library's Role in Running a Three-ring Circus: A Writer's Retreat to Support Writing, Research, and Publishing Heather Johnson, Pamela Bagley, Heather Blunt - Dartmouth Biomedical Libraries, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College Scholarly writing is an important, yet often unsupported professional activity in academia and medicine. Preparers of manuscripts may struggle to allocate time or understand the mechanics of effective writing. In response to the need for writing support and structured time, biomedical librarians at the Dartmouth Biomedical Libraries organized two writer’s retreats that provided access to writing support, protected writing time, research assistance, and a quiet space to facilitate the writing process. In addition to organizing the event, librarians were fully embedded into the curriculum of the retreat. Librarians led a goal-setting activity, met individually with participants, led seminars, and facilitated small group activities aimed at honing writing skills. NAHSL participants will find these writer’s retreats to be easily replicable at their own biomedical libraries. Participants will walk away from this presentation with a toolkit for implementing a similar event intended to further assist students and researchers to reach their academic goals. Attendees will gain logistical insight into how to organize a retreat and learn how feedback from the first retreat was used to inform the second iteration of the event. From Simple to Showstopper: The Yellow Wallpaper at Bryant University Allison Papini - Bryant University This session will explore how to leverage existing resources at your institution to create successful, impactful programming. When the Douglas and Judith Krupp Library at Bryant University booked the National Library of Medicine Travel Exhibit, “Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Yellow Wall-Paper,” we had no idea how it would evolve. We transformed a simple display of text and image-based panels into a complex event featuring expert lectures and an exhibition of rare and unique artifacts. We were able to reach beyond the walls of the library and spark conversation on campus about gender roles in marriage, parenting, and careers as well as the treatment of the mentally ill in the not-so-distant past. Learn how this evolution took place, take away best practices for uncovering hidden value in the collections, faculty and staff at your institution, and discover how to take the ordinary and make it a showstopper.
AAHSL Task Force Evaluating AAMC Core EPAs Judy Spak, Nancy Adams, Emily Brennan, Heather Collins, Iris Kovar-Gough, Elizabeth Lorbeer, Joey Nicholson, Rikke Ogawa, Neil Rambo, Kelly Thromodson, Megan von Isenburg Objective: To describe the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) task forceinvestigating the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) for Entering Residency. Methods: In May 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) published the Core EPAs for Entering Residency. In response to this change, in the Spring of 2016, AAHSL formed the Task Force on Competency-Based Medical Education to evaluate how the new Core EPAs will affect medical schools and thus the engagement of librarians in that curriculum. The task force is charged with identifying libraries participating in Core EPA activities, developing a methodology to characterize the nature of participation, and mapping and cross-referencing existing competencies. The task force will focus on two of the 13 EPAs, specifically EPA 7, form clinical questions and retrieve evidence to advance patient care, and EPA 13, identify system failures and contribute to a culture of safety and improvement. Results: The AASHL task force will share findings and recommendations on the roles of libraries in competency-based medical education through a white paper and presentations. This session will provide an overview of the work of the task force, very preliminary results of a national survey, and how medical librarians can utilize this information in the future.
From Passive to Active: A New Model for Library Orientation Nancy Bianchi, Gary Atwood - Dana Medical Library, University of Vermont Every summer, new residents enter postgraduate medical training programs at the University of Vermont Medical Center. An introduction to the Dana Medical Library has been a standard orientation activity for these new residents. In the past, this orientation consisted of a short lecture outlining library resources, services, and policies. Feedback from the residents, however, revealed that they frequently retained little information. This was primarily due to the passive nature of the lecture and the fact that they were being overwhelmed with other orientation information at the same time. This past year, the library orientation for new residents was completely redesigned and updated with an active learning exercise. Results of this new orientation format were quite revealing. Now, Dana librarians plan to continue to use this passive turned active learning activity, to study its results, and to build on its success with other library presentations.
The Meta of Meta-analysis: A Librarian's Observations Joanne Doucette - MCPHS University Meta-analysis allows investigators to draw conclusions from diverse outcomes reported in the literature regarding the efficacy and/or safety of some procedure or treatment. At MCPHS University, students may take a course to learn the statistical techniques to perform a meta-analysis study. In order to make their experience more genuine, the course focus has been to perform a real meta-analysis. A collaborative effort, initiated and coordinated by Dr. Rania Mekary, a professor at MCPHS with Dr. Timothy Smith, a neurosurgeon at Brigham & Women’s Hospital, has provided significant topics for students. Students work in teams in collaboration with an international collection of neurosurgeons and medical students. The goal is to try to arrive at a more definitive answer to the research question and produce a publication for the medical literature. In my third year of multifaceted involvement with this class, I realize that the experience has been a rich one in ways I would never have considered. In addition to teaching and supervising the literature searches, I have participated in many teams. My participation has resulted in some surprising insights into students’ understanding of medical issues, learning methods, communication skills and general professionalism. The course has allowed me to indulge in learning about new areas of medicine, to mentor a multicultural collection of students, and to experience the excitement of being part of an international medical research team. The goal of this talk is to share some of these insights and encourage other librarians to get involved or create such opportunities.
In the Circus Ring: The Library's Role in Supporting Interprofessional Communication through a Book Club Jessica Kilham, Susan Griffiths, LIsa Adriani, Rachel Lerner, Matt Wilcox - Edward and Barbara Netter Library, Quinnipiac University In the spring semester of 2016, the Library partnered with the Center for Interprofessional Education to introduce a pilot book club program to support interdisciplinary communication. Early goals of the book club were to develop meaningful programming that supported the intellectual mission of the campus, bring the community together, connect people, and create a safe environment for people to share their experience with challenging topics explored in the books. In addition to small group discussions typical of book clubs, invited faculty speakers are asked to share their experience with one of the themes expressed in the book as well as to share their experiences working with that particular subject. The book club provided an opportunity for liaison librarians to work directly with invited faculty speakers from the different schools on campus. Based on the overwhelmingly positive response of the first two events, the book club has become a regular program managed by the library. This talk will discuss the creation of the book club, marketing strategies, partnering with the Center for Interprofessional Health Care Education, the events, the results of the pilot program and suggestions on starting an interprofessional book club at other institutions.
Strengthening Medical Students' Approach to the Literature Review for Public Health Research Projects Donna O'Malley, Alice Stokes - Dana Medical Library, University of Vermont Medical students at the University of Vermont work with community agencies and faculty mentors to “Apply principles of public health research to develop and complete a research project addressing a public health issue identified by the community.” Given the variety of knowledge domains that public health relies upon, the projects ultimately require familiarity with a variety of different disciplines and resources in those disciplines. Dana librarians work with medical students to help them formulate background questions that will help them understand their research projects, and foreground questions that will be addressed in their literature review. Methods Old educational intervention: • Lecture on the literature review and resources available, 35 minutes. • Sample database searches, but no time for every possible database • Librarians do all the thinking during the class New intervention: • Lecture on the literature review and resources available. No sample searches. 15 minutes. • In class assignment: students work in their public health project groups to come up with questions that they need to answer to start their lit review. 20 minutes. • Groups email their questions to the librarian, who address some questions from each group over the next two weeks. • Students do most of the thinking during the class Results I will compare the number of interactions with a librarian in the old and new educational intervention. I will also present a sample of the questions asked. Conclusions Explore ways to improve students’ question formulation for lit review searches.
Mental Health To Go Kits Anne Romano - Silver Hill Hospital As a direct result of a Community Health Needs Assessment, which Silver Hill Hospital conducted in 2013, the hospital highlighted a gap in the understanding of mental illnesses. As a leading psychiatric hospital we felt it was our responsibility to fill that gap. Librarian, Anne Romano, created a set of 12 Mental Health To-Go Kits that Silver Hill Hospital has donated to two local public libraries. Silver Hill Hospital is located in New Canaan, CT and has some property in Wilton, CT. Therefore we started with those two public libraries. These kits contain books, DVDs, CD's, lists of resources, and stress reducing tools. These sturdy white cardboard boxes are packaged to resemble, be shelved, and are checked out just like books. Our goal is to eradicate the stigma surrounding mental illness. It is our goal to secure funding to offer these kits to other public libraries as well as school libraries.
Info Screen Improves Library News Dissemination Debra Berlanstein - Hirsh Health Sciences Library, Tufts University After receiving the Jay Daly Technology Award from NAHSL last year, Hirsh Health Sciences Library was able to purchase a new info screen for our main floor. Installed near the Library Service Desk, running software from Mvix, it has allowed us to more attractively advertise events and share news with our users. The information displayed includes upcoming workshops, changes in hours and promoting liaison librarian services, to name a few. This September a survey will be conducted to gauge the success the screen installation has had in conveying important library information to our users. Anecdotally, it has been a definite upgrade to our robust public relations outreach program.
Medical Librarianship ... by the numbers! Nancy Bianchi, Gary Atwood - Dana Medical Library, University of Vermont This is a poster created to describe the profession of medical librarianship at the annual South Burlington (VT) High School Career/Job EXPO.
Base of the Human Pyramid - Hospital Librarians' Role in Institutional Success Lori Bradshaw - Bristol Hospital In 2016, Bristol Hospital in Bristol, Connecticut celebrated many success, including: Nursing Magnet Status, Healthcare's Most Wired Award, Gold Seal for Joint Replacement, and one year without a a serious safety event. The Librarian played a vital role in these achievements by providing literature searches to inform policies and securing access to appropriate resources for various departments. The hospital departments were then able to build on this part of the base and reach the top of the pyramid through practice to achieve success
Does Computerized Clinical Evidence Improve Patient Skin Problem Outcomes? Progress on Research Marianne Burke, Benjamin Littenberg, Kaitlyn Peper - Dana Medical Library, University of Vermont Physician surveys report that computerized clinical evidence sources (CCES) bridge knowledge gaps and support decisions. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of CCES on patient clinical outcomes in an area of disease such as skin problems. Objective: Evaluate the impact of one CCES, VisualDx, on patient skin problems outcomes in primary care. The study design is a cluster-randomized controlled trial. The aims are to test whether use of VisualDx by PCPs impacts the time (in days) to the resolution of skin problems and the number of follow-up visits for the problem. Study participants include PCPs and their patients with skin problems. Providers are randomized to the intervention group that uses VisualDx, or control that does not (standard treatment). We interviewed patients to determine problem status: “All better”, “Improved”, “Unchanged”, or “Worse” at intervals after the index visit, and how many follow-up visits they had for the problem. 32 UVM Medical Center Adult Primary Care and Family Medicine providers were randomized. 340 patients have completed all phases of the study.This patient-centered research may contribute to knowledge of how evidence-based content technologies contribute to care.
Updating a Consumer Health Collection on a Minimal Budget Jessie Casella - VA Central Western Massachusetts The purpose of this project was to update the library’s consumer health section with minimal funds. Background/Significance: A lack of an onsite librarian for several years resulted in the library’s consumer health print collection being out of date. The collection needed to be weeded and brought up to date with minimal staff time and funds. Method: The new on site librarian developed a collection development policy, weeded the collection and removed out of date items. Free resources from various federal institutions were requested and received. Staff also donated print materials to the library. Results: More than 45 different resources were received from federal, non-profit and for profit agencies. Several books were also donated by staff. The librarian was able to create current consumer health sections for women’s health, memory loss, mental health, diabetes, and fitness. Conclusions: While the size of the library’s collection has been substantially downsized the items available to patients and their families are current and many are to all visitors.
Opening up: The role of health sciences librarians in the open educational resources (OER) movement Chelsea Delnero - Springfield Technical Community College From grassroots efforts, to state-wide initiatives, providing access to affordable textbooks and other educational resources has become a priority for many college campuses throughout the country. Health sciences programs are among the most popular in the United States, yet can require some of the most expensive textbooks. By advocating for open educational resources (OER) in the health sciences, librarians can make these programs more affordable and therefore more accessible. This poster will present ways that health sciences librarians can get involved in the OER movement and will highlight some of the OER available to health sciences faculty and students.
Animal research at Yale: How librarians are improving IACUC literature searches Melissa Funaro, Kate Nyhan, Holly Grosetta Nardini, Rolando Garcia-Milian, Denise Hersey, Mark Gentry Replacement, reduction, and refinement are the framework for literature reviews conducted during the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) process, required at every university where researchers study covered animals. In the literature, are there examples of researchers replacing animals with simulations, in vitro methods, or phylogenetically lower animals? Could the researchers refine their protocol by making procedures less painful, making life in the lab less stressful, or providing a humane endpoint? Could the researchers reduce the number of animals in the experiment while maintaining statistical validity? The researchers themselves must answer these questions – but librarians can help by retrieving relevant articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, AGRICOLA, CAB Abstracts, FEDRIP, AltBib, Altweb, and other resources.
Knowledge management benefits the conference planning process Jeannine Gluck - Eastern Connecticut Health Network Although NAHSL took steps to pass on knowledge about conference planning from year to year, much work was duplicated. Handoff meetings, a binder, and information passed on from individual committee chairs met some of the need, but had limitations. Financial data was recorded, but not in a standardized way. Because each Conference Chair was new to the process, much effort was duplicated from year to year. Knowledge gained was not flowing easily.
RUSA's Health and Medical Reference Guidelines: What's in It for Me? Laura Haines - Dana Medical Library, University of Vermont In 2015 the Health and Medical Reference Committee, under ALA’s Reference and User Services Association (RUSA), completed a major revision to the RUSA Health and Medical Reference Guidelines, a guiding document on the best practices for medical reference service. These guidelines were designed for use in libraries regardless of type, and cover a broad range of possible reference interactions. But what do the Guidelines offer to hospital, university or public libraries already familiar with heatlh reference practices? In a time when more and more paraprofesionals and volunteers are the first point of contact for patients, students and professionals asking health reference questions, these Guidelines provide direction and are easily adapted into training materials for thos first line reference responders. Past Chair of RUSA's Health and Medical Reference Committee and co-author of the RUSA Health and Medical Reference Guidelines will present a poster that illustrates the key concepts of the Guidelines, translates them into best practices, and demonstrates how they can be used to train others to provide high quality health reference service.
Copyright: Walking the Tightrope Bethany Kenyon, Elizabeth Dyer - University of New England, Maine Librarians often struggle with copyright questions from patrons. After winning the copyright consultation with Barbara Ingrassia in the 2015 NAHSL raffle, we decided it was high time to conquer our fears and create a tool to help with the balancing act that is Fair Use. Our poster describes the development and promotion of a Fair Use Checklist.
A New Chapter: Relocation as Opportunity for Reinvention Meaghan Muir, Jessica LaBrie, Emily Schon - Boston Children's Hospital In 2016, in anticipation of a major construction project at our institution, it was necessary for the Boston Children’s Hospital Medical Library and Archives Program to move to a new location. This new library was to be smaller and farther away than its home of over 20 years in the heart of main campus. This potentially challenging change in physical space provided an opportunity to reinvent our library, our collection, and our services. With the move, we refocused our mission on the information and services we provide to our hospital community. The smaller space necessitated analysis of our print collection. We were able to replace much of our print journal collection with electronic back files, which not only freed up space, but also increased ease of use. Despite several set-backs, we arrived in our new space and were up and running within a week. Since our move, we have adjusted to a “new normal” - a different building, new regulars, increased service demands, and a changed workflow. We are developing new services to reach out to new users while simplifying and streamlining existing services. Currently, we are expanding our reach with pop-up libraries around campus and, in the future, a small satellite library space. Both will allow us to connect with busy clinicians and others for whom the new location is not convenient
Rethinking Med Student PubMed Instruction: Enhancing Learning Through Engagement & Enjoyment Robin O'Hanlon, Rebecca Shows - Levy Library, Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai Are you in a PubMed instruction slump? PubMed remains one of the most important biomedical resources available to medical students, but providing impactful instruction on using PubMed remains an elusive challenge for many Health Sciences Librarians. When it comes to teaching our users how to use PubMed, how can Health Sciences Librarians avoid the same old “Sage on the Stage” database demonstration that puts audiences to sleep? In this poster session, attendees will explore ideas around PubMed instruction and how it can be made more engagin through hands on interactive quizzes, polles and exercises. It will address the possibility that PubMed instruction can not only be engagin, but also entertaining! The pedagogical link between "fun" and learning will be explored.
Paperclips and Pineapples: A look inside the NAHSL Archive Rebecca Reznik-Zellen, Gregory Farr, Austen Riggs, Penny Glassman - UMASS Medical School Martha Meacham - NNLM/NER Lori Bradshaw - Bristol Hospital Anne Fladger - Brigham and Women's Hospital This poster will discuss recent activities and upcoming projects of the NAHSL Archives Committee, and present some of the materials that are housed in the Archives. Through this poster the Committee hopes to engage NAHSL attendees on the history of the organization, identify major gaps in the collection, and encourage ongoing contributions of important documents and ephemera.
Outreach with Web-Based Content Creation Tool Teri Shiel, Rich McIntyre, Kathleen Crea - UCONN Health Center Web-based content cration tools that we have used for outreach in the UConn Health Sciences LIbrary are to be exhibited. We have used to these tools to create tutorials, appliographies, infographics, posters, and presentations and to update existing library signage. Using tools such as Canva.com, Piktochart.com, and PowToon.com are a (free!) avenue for innovation, creativity, and the advertisments of your services in a contemporary and exciting way. See how your library may benefit from these applications!
Nurses and Librarians on the Magnet Journey: Strengthening the Bonds Katherine Stemmer-Frumento, Donna Belcinski - Greenwich Hospital When Greenwich Hospital embarked on its Magnet journey in February 2014, the medical library staff viewed this as an opportunity to further their outreach and support of the nursing staff. This included but was not limited to: membership on various committees, e.g. research, diabetes education, falls prevention, etc.; participation in monthly nursing competency days; presenting at new nurses orientations; collection development; EBP instructors; development of Magnet and Nursing Research libguides; and support of nurses pursuing advanced degrees and/or certifications. This involvement resulted in increased user statistics, as well as gratitude from the nurses and enhanced relationships with nursing staff and leadership. During the onsite survey in June 2016, the library staff participated in meetings with the Magnet surveyors. The library's services were highly praised during the exit interviews. Greenwich Hospital received Magnet status within six weeks of the onsite survey. While always supportive of and appreciated by the nurses at Greenwich Hospital, being on the Magnet journey together strengthened the existing bond between the medical library and nursing staff.
Engaging Students and Faculty in the Evaluation of a USMLE Review Project: Implications for Library Collection Development Alice Stokes, Jeanene Light - Dana Medical Library, University of Vermont Introduction: Study materials for USMLE exams are some of the most commonly requested materials at Dana Medical Library. In Fall 2015, the Dana Medical Library received several student requests for online USMLE preparation materials. Librarians arranged for a trial of a new USMLE test preparation software available for library licensing. Librarians designed a plan for soliciting student and faculty feedback to inform the purchasing decision. Methods: The Dana Medical Library ran a 4-week trial of the USMLE preparation software. Students and faculty were notified of the product trial through meetings, e-mail, signs in the library and social media. Trial participants were invited to complete an anonymous survey at the end of the trial. Survey questions addressed ease of use, quality of content, effectiveness in test preparation, and recommendation for or against purchase. Results: Forty students and faculty members participated in the trial. Eighteen responded to the survey (45% response rate). Survey respondents were divided over a recommendation for purchase, with 50% advising against purchase, 37.5% advising for purchase with reservations and 12.5% recommending purchase. Twenty-five percent indicated there were errors in the content. Feedback on the ease of use, quality of questions, and overall performance was also mixed. Conclusions: Engaging students and faculty in an online trial provided valuable feedback. Librarians will continue to evaluate and trial new exam review products in collaboration with students and faculty.
Lyme Disease Awareness Stacy Wein - Copley Hospital This poster is designed to travel throughout the Lamoille County Libraries as both a spring and fall presentation. There are two outreach goals: 1.) Education of Lyme Disease and ticks and resources to obtain information and assistance. The graphics of the bulletin board are intended to portray the information with brief written information supplemented/supported with additional handouts from the Vermont Health Department, the CDC and the booklet Lyme Disease and Associated Diseases: The Basics by Douglas W. Fearn, published the Lyme Disease Association of Southeastern Pennsylvania. A new edition is due out this fall. 2) Develop awareness of the Health Sciences Library services and resources available to the community through collaboration with the public libraries.Books were also purchased for the consumer health collection and made available to the participating library as “ILL” for their library patrons to check out.Hospital staff and area practices were notified of this traveling poster to avoid confusion by possible increase of interest and questions by patients. An unintended result may be the strengthening of the relationship between area practices and the Health Sciences Library as a resource for reliable health information.
Flat Panel Monitors for Marketing Knowledge Services at BIDMC Julie Whelan, Margo Coletti, Nathan Norris - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Knowledge Services is a division of Information Services (IS) at BIDMC. Central to our research, teaching and patient care missions, and our division provides staff across the medical center with access to a number of evidence-based information resources. These include access to online journals, texts, and databases. Our services include searching assistance, intranet organization management, plain language and health literacy initiatives, educating on the NIH Public Access Policy. Finally, we are housed in a library where our division provides access to PCs, printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines and Wi-Fi. Recently, BIDMC installed a number of flat panel monitors throughout both of its main Boston campuses. These are being used to communicate information regarding new personnel, programming and initiatives at the medical center. This serves as inspiration for us, so we requested and received NN/NER funding to purchase (2) flat panel monitors. We viewed this as a division opportunity, so we requested and received NN/NER funding to purchase (2) flat panel monitors. We are using one of these to highlight our information resources, projects, and services. The second is being used for teaching and webinars. In general, we are very pleased with the outcome. This poster will provide a project overview which includes successes and lessons learned.
Management and Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorders and Mental Health Disorders Kandace Yuen - Western Connecticut State University How co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders impact treatment access, engagement, completion, and outcomes, as well as how treatment can more effectively serve persons with co-occurring disorder (CODs). According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA’s) 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an estimated 43.6 million Americans aged 18 and up had experienced one or more mental health disorders (MHDs) in the past year. The same survey found that 20.2 million adults had experienced one or more substance use disorders (SUDs) in the past year. Among those, 7.9 million people had both MHDs and SUDs or another COD. The effects of substance abuse on mental health are cumulative, and they significantly contribute to costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems. These problems include teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, STDs, domestic violence, child abuse, crime, motor vehicle accidents, suicide, and death. People with CODs have complex needs and often struggle in their process of recovery when compared with individuals who suffer from mental health or substance use disorders alone. Individuals with CODs can benefit from integrated treatment services that include screening; person-centered assessment based on an individual’s readiness to change; correct diagnoses; and services that include an appropriate level of care and effective pharmacotherapy, overdose, and psychotherapy approaches. Successful implementation of these elements would help individuals recover through improved access to social support systems, employment opportunities, and independent living, which would reduce the likelihood of negative consequences such as psychiatric symptomatology, hospitalizations, and incarceration.
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